A Midsummer Night's Dream is a comedy written by William Shakespeare c. or The play is set in Athens, and consists of several subplots that revolve around the marriage of Theseus and buylevitraonline.co subplot involves a conflict between four Athenian lovers. Another follows a group of six amateur actors rehearsing the play which they are to perform before the wedding. Nov 01, · Florence Fenwick Miller won the right to be elected to her school board under her maiden name in , and two of the first married women to stand for .
It is regarded as tradition for wives to take a man's name after marriage. Why, asks Dr Sophie Coulombeau. My name is What does vt mean in the dictionary Coulombeau. But a year from now, after the fuss from my wedding has died down, it could be something rather different. For me, to adopt the surname of my partner and relinquish my own would profoundly affect how I think about my own identity.
On the one hand, it would bind us into a family unit and make it easier to know what to write on the birth certificates if we ever have children. But on the other, it would make me first and foremost a wife, while my husband would remain, quite simply, himself. Introducing myself as "Sophie Hardiman" would mean that saying "I do" had fundamentally changed how to update dota 2 manually answer to the question "Who am I?
If I chose to take my new husband's name, I'd be far from alone. Recent smaller-scale research, however, suggests that this proportion has shrunk over the last two decades, especially among highly-educated and younger women.
Since in Britain it has always maiden name what does it mean legal to call yourself whatever you like as long as you're not committing fraudit's hard to get a clear and definitive picture. But as a rough guide we can estimate that when the confetti has fallen, two-thirds how to dress in suits mens three-quarters of married British maiden name what does it mean still sign documents using their husband's surname or introduce themselves using it - they apply what is the difference between light and sound waves new passports and credit cards, or they change their handles on social media.
Feelings can run high over the issue of surname change, as demonstrated by recent criticism of Amal Alamuddin's decision to change her name when she married George Clooney. Some feminists point out that women suffer serious detriment to their careers when they change their names - that they signal their submission to their husbands, and reinforce to their own children the idea that women are inferior to men. Others shrug the issue off and say that women's names mean little to them, or point out that a birth name is usually the name of the woman's father anyway.
Those who think a woman should change her surname often say that it's not really important, but, given the choice between the various options, they prefer to go with "tradition".
This argument, of course, presupposes that traditions are worth preserving. But in fact, just a brief dip into the history of marital surname change - a specifically English phenomenon - reveals that its origins are at best controversial. And at worst, they are deeply unsavoury. British hereditary surnames are only about 1, years old. Imported by the French around the time of the Norman Conquest, they stabilised throughout much of English society by the 14th Century, with Celtic regions taking longer to adapt.
Married women, however, were perceived to have no surname at all, since the Normans had also brought with them the doctrine of coverture, the legal principle that, upon marriage, a woman became her husband's possession. Her state of namelessness reflected this. In the words of one court in"when a woman took a husband, she lost every surname except 'wife of'". But, around the turn of the 15th Century, the French doctrine of coverture received a unique English twist.
There was another interpretation of coverture available, based on scriptural ideas, which focused not on the husband's power over his wife but on the unity that marriage gave them.
In the words of the English jurist Henry de Bracton, they became "a single person, because they are one flesh and one blood".
As this idea gained ground, so did the clerical habit of designating a married woman by her husband's surname. The married woman had formerly been a vassal with no surname at all, but now, in theory, she came to share the surname of her husband as a symbol of their legal and spiritual unity. However, if there was one person in a marriage, that person was the husband. Married women still could not hold property, vote, or maiden name what does it mean to law.
Legally, at the point of marriage they ceased to exist. By the early 17th Century, the custom of the woman adopting her husband's surname was sufficiently entrenched in England that the antiquarian William Camden could write: "Women with us, at their marriage, do change their surnames, and pass into their husbands names, and justly.
For they are no more twain, but one flesh. Crucially, the custom was also specific to England. How to use shift paddles noted with disapproval: "And yet in France and the Netherlands, the better sort of women will still retain their own name with their husbands… But I fear husbands will not like this note, for that some of their dames may be ambitiously over-pert and too forward to imitate it.
Find more maiden name what does it mean portraits on the Your Paintings website. So even inCamden identified a woman's desire to retain her own name on marriage with "ambition", "pertness" and "forwardness". Perhaps this was because he saw the surname as an especially important component of the name. Surnames were, he declared, "especially respected as whereon the glory and credit of men is grounded, and by which the same is conveyed to the knowledge of posterity". By the middle of the 18th Century, as print culture expanded and literacy increased, some of those most preoccupied with "glory", "credit" and "posterity" were wealthy, powerful or famous married women who resented that their names would die with them.
In Mary Wortley Montagu's words, women desired "that Fame which Men have engross'd to themselves and will not suffer us to share". The pioneering feminist writer Mary Wollstonecraft, for example, married her fellow philosopher William Godwin in More conservative 18th Century women might have hesitated to take such a radical step - Camden's accusations of "ambition" and "forwardness" were still damaging, and to sign a different surname to one's husband or children could suggest that one was living in sin, causing immense reputational damage.
But in many cases these how to catch snorlax in leaf green found other ways to perpetuate their own surnames, thus cheating the companion tradition that had arisen from that of the wife taking her husband's surname - that of the children inheriting the paternal surname too.
Hester Piozzi, one of the most influential literary women of the late 18th Century, petitioned the king to allow her husband's nephew to adopt her maiden name of Salusbury, and thus continue it to posterity. The fact that he had taken her maiden name, she wrote - even though she herself had abandoned that name on her marriage - made him "my Son at last - in true Earnest; my Son by Adoption, inserted into the Pedigree of my Descent". Other women would do the same, or even petition Parliament to pass a private act ensuring the continuation of their maiden names.
This vogue for what is the meaning of persistent in hindi keeping or perpetuating their surnames was deeply controversial. The novelist Frances Burney plotted her second novel, Cecilia: Or, Memoirs of an Heiress, to revolve around the problem of a man who had to take a woman's surname. Burney's novel ignited impassioned debates in drawing-rooms all around literary London, with the Duchess of Portland declaring that "nothing, the nearest our own Hearts, could have been debated more warmly".
But the royal licence and the private act of parliament were solutions for only a few very wealthy English women. As the 19th Century dawned, the majority continued to take their husband's surnames and see their own die out. Over the Victorian period, however, several English women braved fierce criticism to obtain landmark court decisions that confirmed their right to call themselves the name they chose.
Florence Fenwick Miller won the right to be elected to her school board under her maiden name inand two of the first married women to stand for Parliament, Mary Macarthur and Violet Markham, did so under their maiden names. Often they still had to deal with ignorant officials who maintained that it was the law for women to take their husband's names. But the barriers came slowly down, and in Helena Normanton, the first female barrister in England, succeeded in getting the British Foreign Office to issue her a passport in her maiden name.
One of the first things Normanton did after receiving her passport was travel to the USA to mentor a group of women who were fighting for a similar right. For the custom of marital surname change had taken on a global life. Over the 19th Century it had spread to Scotland, Ireland and Wales, as well as overseas to British colonies and ex-colonies, and to parts of mainland Europe. As the legal restrictions of coverture were gradually abolished, its symbol lived on - and in some other countries, it became law.
The battle for the maiden name was particularly fierce in the USA. Lucy Stone, a 19th Century US suffragist and abolitionist, was inspired by African-American customs to keep her maiden name after her marriage, signing her correspondence "Lucy Stone only. When this was confirmed, Stone made a public announcement that her name had not changed and never would.
Her maiden name what does it mean activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton wrote, "Nothing has been done in the woman's rights movement for some time that has so rejoiced my heart as the announcement by you of a woman's right to her name. It does seem to me a proper self-respect demands that every woman may have some name by which she may be known from cradle to grave.
More from Encyclopedia Britannica. InStone's example inspired the journalist Ruth Hale to found the Lucy Stone League, an American organization supporting women's rights to keep and use their maiden names. Mentored by Helena Normanton, and open to both women and men, the 'Lucy Stoners' challenged in federal court any government edict that would not recognise a married woman by the name she chose to use.
Their slogan was "My name is my identity and must not be lost. But various US how to view print history countered their success by passing new laws compelling women to take their husbands' surnames. One attorney-general told a women who wished to keep her name that she was "an oddball", a "sick and confused woman", whose need was "not for a change of name but a competent psychiatrist".
It was only in that a succession of legal cases confirmed that women could use their maiden names in whatever ways they pleased. Some would say that the fight is now over. Both in the UK and the US, the restrictive provisions of coverture have long been abolished and women are, what does a moron mean least in law, equal to their husbands.
They can now make a free choice about what to do with their names - and some couples are turning to double-barrelling or even hybrid names as a compromise. Yet in Britain, the US, and many other countries that adopted this originally niche English custom, the debate rages on. Despite the protests of some people that the surname question is unimportant, it still rakes up strong feelings like few other issues.
And we maiden name what does it mean well ask, in the wake of last year's Marriage Same Sex Couples Act, whether a custom that depends on a gender-normative idea of marriage - a woman automatically sacrificing her name to take that of a man - is starting to look more outdated than ever. What is oci and pio believe that every woman must make this choice for herself, and that it is important not to let a respectful debate become hijacked by judgmental accusations about who is, and is not, a true feminist.
Having said that, I don't live free of history, and I can't bring myself to ignore it. If I look at the bureaucratic form that would enable me to change my name, I see the medieval script, "she has lost all surname but wife of".
I see the royal licences bought by aristocratic women desperate to transmit their names to posterity. I see the legal judgment of the US attorney-general upon the "sick and what age are vintage garments woman… in need of a psychiatrist", and I see the signature of "Lucy Stone only.
When it comes to my own wedding day I will be "ambitious", "pert" and "forward". To abandon my surname and take that of my partner would mean abandoning Sophie Coulombeau, along with all the errors, achievements and resonances she created over thirty years. I would become, first and foremost, my husband's wife. And that's not the whole of me. So I will keep the name Coulombeau. I'll keep it with all its baggage, its embarrassments, its frequent misspellings, and its bad jokes about detectives.
And as I sign my unchanged name in the register, I'll think of the women who made it possible for me to do so. Listen to Is Marriage an Identity Crisis? William Camden An important antiquary and historian Employed at Westminster School, becoming its headmaster in During his vacations he made tours around England, collecting antiquarian material for his books, including Britannia, first published in Mary Wollstonecraft Lucy Stone Related Topics.
Relationships Social history.
Jan 28, · The album also saw the debut of guitarist Adrian Smith, who remains an indelible part of the Maiden sound to this day. As does Wrathchild, which, 38 years after its release, is still an almost-constant, and very welcome, presence in Maiden’s live sets, including on the world tour for their most recent studio album, ’s The Book of Souls. Evangelii Gaudium, Apostolic Exhortation of Pope Francis, 1. The joy of the gospel fills the hearts and lives of all who encounter Jesus. Those who accept his offer of salvation are set free from sin, sorrow, inner emptiness and loneliness.
The joy of the gospel . A joy ever new, a joy which is shared . The delightful and comforting joy of evangelizing . Eternal newness . The new evangelization for the transmission of the faith . The scope and limits of this Exhortation . A Church which goes forth . Taking the first step, being involved and supportive, bearing fruit and rejoicing . Pastoral activity and conversion . An ecclesial renewal which cannot be deferred .
From the heart of the Gospel . A mission embodied within human limits . A mother with an open heart . No to an economy of exclusion  No to the new idolatry of money  No to a financial system which rules rather than serves  No to the inequality which spawns violence  Some cultural challenges  Challenges to inculturating the faith  Challenges from urban cultures .
Temptations faced by pastoral workers . Yes to the challenge of a missionary spirituality  No to selfishness and spiritual sloth  No to a sterile pessimism  Yes to the new relationships brought by Christ  No to spiritual worldliness  No to warring among ourselves  Other ecclesial challenges . The entire people of God proclaims the Gospel .
A people for everyone  A people of many faces  We are all missionary disciples  The evangelizing power of popular piety  Person to person  Charisms at the service of a communion which evangelizes  Culture, thought and education . The homily . Preparing to preach . Reverence for truth  Personalizing the word  Spiritual reading  An ear to the people  Homiletic resources . Evangelization and the deeper understanding of the kerygma .
Kerygmatic and mystagogical catechesis  Personal accompaniment in processes of growth  Centred on the word of God . Communal and societal repercussions of the kerygma . The inclusion of the poor in society . The common good and peace in society .
Time is greater than space  Unity prevails over conflict  Realities are more important than ideas  The whole is greater than the part . Social dialogue as a contribution to peace . Dialogue between faith, reason and science  Ecumenical dialogue  Relations with Judaism  Interreligious dialogue  Social dialogue in a context of religious freedom .
Reasons for a renewed missionary impulse . Personal encounter with the saving love of Jesus  The spiritual savour of being a people  The mysterious working of the risen Christ and his Spirit  The missionary power of intercessory prayer . Mary, Mother of Evangelization . The joy of the gospel fills the hearts and lives of all who encounter Jesus.
Those who accept his offer of salvation are set free from sin, sorrow, inner emptiness and loneliness. With Christ joy is constantly born anew. A joy ever new, a joy which is shared. Whenever our interior life becomes caught up in its own interests and concerns, there is no longer room for others, no place for the poor. This is a very real danger for believers too. Many fall prey to it, and end up resentful, angry and listless. I invite all Christians, everywhere, at this very moment, to a renewed personal encounter with Jesus Christ, or at least an openness to letting him encounter them; I ask all of you to do this unfailingly each day.
I need you. How good it feels to come back to him whenever we are lost! Let me say this once more: God never tires of forgiving us; we are the ones who tire of seeking his mercy.
Time and time again he bears us on his shoulders. No one can strip us of the dignity bestowed upon us by this boundless and unfailing love. With a tenderness which never disappoints, but is always capable of restoring our joy, he makes it possible for us to lift up our heads and to start anew.
Let us not flee from the resurrection of Jesus, let us never give up, come what will. May nothing inspire more than his life, which impels us onwards! The books of the Old Testament predicted that the joy of salvation would abound in messianic times. Break forth, O mountains, into singing! Shout aloud, O daughter Jerusalem! Perhaps the most exciting invitation is that of the prophet Zephaniah, who presents God with his people in the midst of a celebration overflowing with the joy of salvation.
What tender paternal love echoes in these words! A few examples will suffice. Lk Our Christian joy drinks of the wellspring of his brimming heart. Why should we not also enter into this great stream of joy? There are Christians whose lives seem like Lent without Easter. I realize of course that joy is not expressed the same way at all times in life, especially at moments of great difficulty. Joy adapts and changes, but it always endures, even as a flicker of light born of our personal certainty that, when everything is said and done, we are infinitely loved.
Sometimes we are tempted to find excuses and complain, acting as if we could only be happy if a thousand conditions were met. I also think of the real joy shown by others who, even amid pressing professional obligations, were able to preserve, in detachment and simplicity, a heart full of faith. In their own way, all these instances of joy flow from the infinite love of God, who has revealed himself to us in Jesus Christ.
We become fully human when we become more than human, when we let God bring us beyond ourselves in order to attain the fullest truth of our being. Here we find the source and inspiration of all our efforts at evangelization. For if we have received the love which restores meaning to our lives, how can we fail to share that love with others? The delightful and comforting joy of evangelizing.
Goodness always tends to spread. Every authentic experience of truth and goodness seeks by its very nature to grow within us, and any person who has experienced a profound liberation becomes more sensitive to the needs of others. As it expands, goodness takes root and develops. If we wish to lead a dignified and fulfilling life, we have to reach out to others and seek their good.
A renewal of preaching can offer believers, as well as the lukewarm and the non-practising, new joy in the faith and fruitfulness in the work of evangelization. The heart of its message will always be the same: the God who revealed his immense love in the crucified and risen Christ. He is for ever young and a constant source of newness.
Jesus can also break through the dull categories with which we would enclose him and he constantly amazes us by his divine creativity. The real newness is the newness which God himself mysteriously brings about and inspires, provokes, guides and accompanies in a thousand ways. This conviction enables us to maintain a spirit of joy in the midst of a task so demanding and challenging that it engages our entire life.
God asks everything of us, yet at the same time he offers everything to us. Nor should we see the newness of this mission as entailing a kind of displacement or forgetfulness of the living history which surrounds us and carries us forward.
The joy of evangelizing always arises from grateful remembrance: it is a grace which we constantly need to implore. The new evangelization for the transmission of the faith. The Synod reaffirmed that the new evangelization is a summons addressed to all and that it is carried out in three principal settings. The Church, in her maternal concern, tries to help them experience a conversion which will restore the joy of faith to their hearts and inspire a commitment to the Gospel. Lastly, we cannot forget that evangelization is first and foremost about preaching the Gospel to those who do not know Jesus Christ or who have always rejected him.
Many of them are quietly seeking God, led by a yearning to see his face, even in countries of ancient Christian tradition. All of them have a right to receive the Gospel. Christians have the duty to proclaim the Gospel without excluding anyone.
Instead of seeming to impose new obligations, they should appear as people who wish to share their joy, who point to a horizon of beauty and who invite others to a delicious banquet. The scope and limits of this Exhortation. I was happy to take up the request of the Fathers of the Synod to write this Exhortation. Countless issues involving evangelization today might be discussed here, but I have chosen not to explore these many questions which call for further reflection and study.
Nor do I believe that the papal magisterium should be expected to offer a definitive or complete word on every question which affects the Church and the world. It is not advisable for the Pope to take the place of local Bishops in the discernment of every issue which arises in their territory.
Here I have chosen to present some guidelines which can encourage and guide the whole Church in a new phase of evangelization, one marked by enthusiasm and vitality. In this context, and on the basis of the teaching of the Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium , I have decided, among other themes, to discuss at length the following questions:.
I have dealt extensively with these topics, with a detail which some may find excessive. All of them help give shape to a definite style of evangelization which I ask you to adopt in every activity which you undertake. In these verses we see how the risen Christ sent his followers to preach the Gospel in every time and place, so that faith in him might spread to every corner of the earth. Abraham received the call to set out for a new land cf.